Philip Shapira


Member Of:
  • School of Public Policy
  • Technology Policy and Assessment Center
Office Phone:
Office Location:
DM Smith 314

Philip Shapira is a Professor in the School of Public Policy at Georgia Institute of Technology and Professor of Management, Innovation and Policy with the Manchester Institute of Innovation Research, Alliance Manchester Business School, University of Manchester. His interests encompass science and technology policy, economic and regional development, innovation management and policy, industrial competitiveness, technology trajectories and assessment, innovation measurement, and policy evaluation. Prof. Shapira's current and recent research includes projects that examine nanotechnology research and innovation systems assessment, responsible research and innovation in synthetic biology, and next generation manufacturing and institutions for technology diffusion. Prof. Shapira is a director of the Georgia Tech Program in Science, Technology and Innovation Policy and the Georgia Manufacturing Survey. He is co-editor (with J. Edler, P. Cunningham, and A. Gök) of the Handbook of Innovation Policy Impact (Edward Elgar 2016) and (with R. Smits and S. Kuhlmann) of Innovation Policy: Theory and Practice. An International Handbook (Edward Elgar, 2010). Prof. Shapira is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts.

For recent publications by Prof. Shapira, please visit: and Google Scholar.

Philip Shapira is on Twitter @pshapira

  • Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, City and Regional Planning
  • M.A., University of California, Berkeley, Economics
  • M.C.P., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, City Planning
  • Dip.TP (Dist.), Gloucestershire College of Art and Design, U.K.
Research Fields:
  • Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy
  • Asia (East)
  • Europe
  • United States
  • United States - Georgia
  • Regional Development
  • Emerging Technologies - Innovation
  • Small and Midsize Enterprises
  • Technology Management and Policy
Recent Publications

Journal Articles

  • Tracking the emergence of synthetic biology
       In: Scientometrics [Peer Reviewed]


  • Using the wayback machine to mine websites in the social sciences: A methodological resource
       In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology [Peer Reviewed]

    August 2016

    © 2015 The Authors. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of ASIS&T.Websites offer an unobtrusive data source for developing and analyzing information about various types of social science phenomena. In this paper, we provide a methodological resource for social scientists looking to expand their toolkit using unstructured web-based text, and in particular, with the Wayback Machine, to access historical website data. After providing a literature review of existing research that uses the Wayback Machine, we put forward a step-by-step description of how the analyst can design a research project using archived websites. We draw on the example of a project that analyzes indicators of innovation activities and strategies in 300 U.S. small- and medium-sized enterprises in green goods industries. We present six steps to access historical Wayback website data: (a) sampling, (b) organizing and defining the boundaries of the web crawl, (c) crawling, (d) website variable operationalization, (e) integration with other data sources, and (f) analysis. Although our examples draw on specific types of firms in green goods industries, the method can be generalized to other areas of research. In discussing the limitations and benefits of using the Wayback Machine, we note that both machine and human effort are essential to developing a high-quality data set from archived web information.
  • Science system path-dependencies and their influences: nanotechnology research in Russia
       In: Scientometrics

    May 2016

    © 2016, The Author(s).In this paper, we study the influence of path dependencies on the development of an emerging technology in a transitional economy. Our focus is the development of nanotechnology in Russia in the period between 1990 and 2012. By examining outputs, publication paths and collaboration patterns, we identify a series of factors that help to explain Russia’s limited success in leveraging its ambitious national nanotechnology initiative. The analysis highlights four path-dependent tendencies of Russian nanotechnology research: publication pathways and the gatekeeping role of the Russian Academy of Sciences; increasing geographical and institutional centralisation of nanotechnology research; limited institutional diffusion; and patterns associated with the internationalisation of Russian research. We discuss policy implications related to path dependence, nanotechnology research in Russia and to the broader reform of the Russian science system.
  • Low carbon innovation and enterprise growth in the UK: Challenges of a place-blind policy mix
       In: Technological Forecasting and Social Change

    February 2016

    © 2015 The Authors.This paper uses a policy mix approach to examine the institutional and governance issues arising from the UK's support for innovation in low carbon manufacturing sectors. The paper draws on interviews with managers of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises as well as policy practitioners and industry experts. The analysis of these interviews highlights issues in the multi-scalar design and delivery of these policies, including gaps and tensions in the policy mix, as well as the importance, and relative neglect of, regional institutional entrepreneurship in driving change. We find that coherence and consistency in UK low-carbon innovation policy is lacking, which is creating uncertainty and hampering private sector investment. The loss of regional capacity and anchor institutions challenges local and national actors to leverage instruments and connections but with much depleted resources, lacking a clear mandate, and facing a fragmented intermediary and support landscape.